SOIL Studies

SOIL Studies

2015, Vol 4, Num, 1     (Pages: 018-026)

From Being Akşehir Lake to Being Akşehir Desert: The Process and the Influential Factors

Ali ÇATAL 1 ,Orhan DENGİZ 2

1 Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara
2 Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü, Samsun

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This study addresses the process of turning of Akşehir Lake, located in Akarçay depression between Konya and Afyonkarahisar Provinces in south-west Central Anatolia Region, into Akşehir Desert. Compiling the factors contributing to turning of Akşehir Lake which is called as the 5th largest lake in Turkey, into Akşehir Desert, geological incidents, climate, flora, use of water under and above the ground, population growth, the evolutions during 40-year period have been revealed through remote perception method. Between 1973 and 1984, slight increases and decreases were observed on surface area of the lake, which were directly proportional to annual precipitation amount and vaporization. There had been no considerable intervention by the natural incidents and human beings, Until 1984, to the lake or to the water, either under or above the ground, which provided water flow into the lake. Therefore, the study is based on the values of 1984 which has been considered as threshold value (surface area of the lake is 360 km²). In the aftermath of 1984, flow rate of the water sources feeding the lake went down to zero due to the following reasons: less precipitation, vaporization, embanking the water sources feeding the lake through building dams and ponds, increase in unconscious irrigation, water wells opened illegally and out of control, establishing factories and organized industry zones, thermal hotels, population growth, and thus, increase in domestic water consumption. These premises built by the human beings has had an 90-95% impact on the disappear of the lake. Is it possible to turn Akşehir Lake back to how it was in 1984 through taking some measures? No, it is not possible. What is the solution? This destruction caused by the human beings have left nothing for a possible recovery by human beings. One may hope that the precipitation amount will be around 1.500 mm., the above mentioned 65 dams and ponds will fill up due to high precipitation, the excess water will be given to the water courses again ending up in the lake.

Keywords : Akarçay Basin, Akşehir Lake, change in surface area of the lake, remote perception